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Detailed capacitance parameters: X5R, X7R, Y5V, COG
2019-05-08
 
These parameters describe the dielectric material type, temperature characteristics, and error parameters used in the capacitor. Different values also correspond to a range of capacitance capacities. Specifically, it is:

X7R is commonly used for capacitors with a capacity of 3300pF~0.33uF. Such capacitors are suitable for filtering, coupling, etc., and the dielectric constant is relatively large. When the temperature changes from 0°C to 70°C, the capacitance change is ±15%.

Y5P and Y5V are commonly used for capacitors with a capacity of 150pF~2nF. The temperature range is wide. With temperature changes, the capacitance varies from ±10% or +22%/-82%.

For other coding and temperature characteristics, you can refer to Table 4-1. For example, X5R means that the normal operating temperature of the capacitor is -55 ° C ~ +85 ° C, the corresponding capacitance capacity changes ± 15%.


Below we only introduce the performance and application of the commonly used NPO, X7R, Z5U and Y5V and the ordering items that should be paid attention to in order to attract everyone's attention. Different companies may have different naming methods for the above different performance capacitors. Here we refer to the AVX company naming method. For other companies' products, please refer to the company's product manual. The main difference between NPO, X7R, Z5U and Y5V is that they have different filling media. In the same volume, the capacity of the capacitor composed of different filling media is different, and the dielectric loss and capacity stability of the capacitor are also different. Therefore, when using capacitors, different capacitors should be selected according to the different roles of capacitors in the circuit.


First, NPO capacitor


NPO is one of the most commonly used monolithic ceramic capacitors with temperature compensation characteristics. Its filling medium consists of ruthenium, osmium and some other rare oxides. NPO capacitors are one of the most stable capacitors for capacitance and dielectric loss. The capacity change is 0 ± 30 ppm / ° C at temperatures from -55 ° C to + 125 ° C, and the capacitance changes with frequency less than ± 0.3 ΔC. The drift or hysteresis of the NPO capacitor is less than ±0.05%.


Relatively greater than ±2% of the film capacitance is negligible. Its typical capacity changes less than ±0.1% relative to the service life. NPO capacitors vary in capacitance and dielectric loss with frequency depending on the package form. Large package sizes are better than small package sizes. The table below shows the range of capacities that can be selected for NPO capacitors.


NPO capacitors are suitable for use in oscillators, tank tank capacitors, and coupling capacitors in high frequency circuits.


Second, X7R capacitor


The X7R capacitor is called a temperature-stabilized ceramic capacitor. When the temperature changes from -55 ° C to +125 ° C, its capacity changes to 15%. It should be noted that the change in capacitor capacity is nonlinear at this time.


The capacity of the X7R capacitor is different under different voltage and frequency conditions, and it also changes with time, about 1% ΔC every 10 years, showing a change of about 5% in 10 years.


X7R capacitors are mainly used in less demanding industrial applications, and their capacity changes are acceptable when the voltage changes. Its main feature is that the capacitance can be made larger under the same volume. The table below shows the range of capacities that can be selected for the X7R capacitor.


Third, Z5U capacitor


Z5U capacitors are called "universal" ceramic monolithic capacitors. The first thing to consider here is the temperature range of use. The main reason for the Z5U capacitor is its small size and low cost. For the above three ceramic monolithic capacitors, the Z5U capacitor has the largest capacitance at the same volume. However, its capacitance is greatly affected by environmental and working conditions, and its aging rate can be reduced by up to 5% every 10 years.


Despite its unstable capacity, it has a wide range of applications due to its small size, low equivalent series inductance (ESL) and low equivalent series resistance (ESR), and good frequency response. Especially in the application of decoupling circuits. The following table shows the range of values for the Z5U capacitor.


Other technical specifications for Z5U capacitors are as follows: Operating Temperature Range +10°C --- +85°C Temperature Characteristics +22% ---- -56% Dielectric Loss Max 4%

Fourth, Y5V capacitor

The Y5V capacitor is a general-purpose capacitor with a temperature limit of +22% to -82% in the range of -30 ° C to 85 ° C.

The high dielectric constant of Y5V allows the fabrication of capacitors up to 4.7μF in smaller physical sizes.

The value range of the Y5V capacitor is shown in the following table.

Other technical specifications for Y5V capacitors are as follows: Operating Temperature Range -30°C --- +85°C Temperature Characteristics +22% ---- -82% Dielectric Loss Maximum 5%

Characteristics and main uses of NPO, X7R and Y5V capacitors

Characteristics and main uses of NPO

It is a Class 1 ceramic medium with stable electrical performance and basically does not change with time, temperature and voltage. It is suitable for high-reliability and high-stability high-frequency and ultra-high frequency applications.

characteristic:

Capacitance range 1pF to 0.1uF (1±0.2V rms 1MHz)

Ambient temperature: -55°C~+125°C Group: CG

Temperature characteristics: 0±30ppm/°C

Loss tangent: 15x10-4

Insulation resistance: ≥10GΩ

Electric strength: 2.5 times rated voltage 5 seconds Surge current: ≤50 mA

X7R features and main uses

It belongs to Class 2 ceramic medium, and its electrical performance is relatively stable. Its characteristics change little with time, temperature and voltage. It is suitable for high coupling, bypass, source wave circuit and frequency below 10 megahertz.

characteristic:

Capacitance range 300pF~3.3uF (1.0±0.2V rms 1KHz)

Ambient temperature: -55°C~+125°C Group: 2X1

Temperature characteristics: ±15%


Loss tangent: 100Volts: 2.5% max


50Volts: 2.5% max

25Volts: 3.0% max

16Volts: 3.5% max

10Volts: 5.0% max

Insulation resistance: ≥4GΩ or ≥100S/C (unit: MΩ)

Electric strength: 2.5 times rated voltage 5 seconds Surge current: ≤50 mA

Y5V characteristics and main uses

It belongs to Class 2 ceramic media and has a high dielectric constant. It can easily achieve small volume and large capacity. Its capacity changes with temperature, but the cost is lower. Widely used in applications where capacity and loss are not high.

characteristic:

Capacitance range 1000pF to 22uF (0.3V 1KHz)

Ambient temperature: -30 ° C ~ +85 ° C

Temperature characteristics: ±22%~-82%

Loss tangent: 50Volts: 3.5%

25Volts: 5.0%

16Volts: 7.0%

Insulation resistance: ≥4GΩ or ≥100S/C (unit: MΩ)

Electric strength: 2.5 times rated voltage 5 seconds Surge current: ≤50 mA

 
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